NAMII

NAMII (6)

Monday, 14 October 2013 09:29

NAMII Rebrands Name to America Makes

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The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, driven by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM), proudly announces that it unveiled its rebrand to America Makes to kick start a unified, United States based additive manufacturing and 3D printing movement.

“America Makes is a vehicle for the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute to raise our profile, reach a wider audience to include the hobbyist and the entrepreneur, and ultimately, provide a richer member experience,” stated Ralph Resnick, Founding Director of the Institute and NCDMM President and Executive, in his remarks to members. “America Makes sets the stage for us to realize our mission of reinvigorating the U.S. manufacturing industry and jobs market by serving a strong message. America Makes is our call to action. America Makes challenges the perception of manufacturing. America Makes is a far-reaching movement that goes beyond the walls of industry and into the homes of individuals. This is how we will become competitive. This is how we grow our nation’s economy and get ahead. This is how we lead. When America Makes, America Works!”

For the Institute, which recently marked its first anniversary of award in August, the timing for a rebranding was not just ideal, but necessary. Leadership had begun to feel that its identity was limited by its five-letter acronym, one that did not fully or aptly convey the intent, the depth, or mission of the organization.

The announcement was the accumulation of months of research and brainstorming among the Institute and its strategic partners to evolve the Institute in representing and unifying the entire additive manufacturing and 3D printing community under America Makes. With America Makes, the Institute has a name and a concept that are so much more effective in communicating its purpose and ambition.

“With America Makes, the goal of the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute is to broaden our voice to be more indicative and inclusive of all of the innovative people in our country—whether they are hobbyists or entrepreneurs or they work in industry, academia, and government,” said Ed Morris, Director. “In creating a movement in America Makes beyond a traditional organizational structure, it further unites us as a community and ensures our collective success in both advancing and accelerating the adoption of additive manufacturing and 3D printing technologies and increasing our nation’s global economic competitiveness.”

Added Mr. Resnick, “Our mission has not changed; it has just been clarified. We look to embrace innovation from whatever its source as we collectively strive to accelerate the true realization of additive manufacturing through 3D printing. We are growing the inertia from our incredible first year of activities into a long overdue manufacturing movement because again history has proven that ‘When America Makes, America Works.’”

Joining Mr. Resnick in making the announcement of unifying the community under the America Makes movement was 3D printing visionary, Bre Pettis, CEO of MakerBot, the global leader in desktop 3D printing.

“It is a great honor to have Bre, the well-known igniter of the desktop 3D printing prosumer market and ‘Maker movement,’ in attendance for the announcement of America Makes,” said Mr. Resnick.

Bre Pettis has led MakerBot as CEO since the company’s beginning in 2009. MakerBot completed a merger in August 2013 with Stratasys, one of the leading players in industrial additive manufacturing in the world, and an American Makes member.

“The importance of encouraging American-made manufacturing is crucial to the economic success of our country,” noted Pettis in his talk. “We see 3D printing as a large component of that success, allowing for faster and more productive cycles of innovation and iteration. America Makes is helping U.S.-based companies and entrepreneurs with further understanding and adoption of the tools that are available to them. I’m proud to be part of this pivotal time in U.S.-based manufacturing.”

America Makes sets the stage for all working and innovating in additive manufacturing and 3D printing to realize the mission of reinvigorating our nation’s manufacturing industry and jobs market by serving a strong message. However, the rebrand is only the first step.

Along with the new look and feel is an upgraded website that empowers members to collaborate and network with other members; publish and share findings; and search and find answers to tough additive manufacturing questions. In the coming days and weeks, the America Makes website will feature more community and networking functions.

For more information, visit: www.americamakes.us

Friday, 27 September 2013 13:05

NAMII to Host a MFG Day Open House

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NAMII, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, driven by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM), proudly announces that to commemorate national Manufacturing Day (MFG Day) observed on October 4th, it is holding a Public Open House on the evening of Thursday, October 3rd, from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at the NAMII facility at 236 West Boardman Street, Youngstown, OH 44503. Light refreshments will be served. The public is welcome to this free special event and encouraged to attend, but registration is required.

On MFG Day on October 4th, NAMII is also opening its doors for private tours of the facility by local schools and civic organizations. To schedule a private tour on October 4th or any other day, please contact NAMII at 330-622-4305.

MFG Day is an annual national event, executed at the local level that supports hundreds of manufacturers across the nation by hosting students, teachers, parents, job seekers, and other local community members at open houses designed to showcase modern manufacturing technology and careers. The goal of MFG Day is to addresses common misperceptions about manufacturing by giving manufacturers an opportunity to open their doors and show, in a coordinated effort, what manufacturing is - and what it isn't.

"NAMII is honored to be able to participate in MFG Day and support the mission of this important, national event," said NAMII Director and NCDMM Vice President Ed Morris. "The manufacturing industry has been and continues to be a driving economic force in our country. National MFG Day serves as a way to remind the public of the manufacturing industry's important economic role and educate them on the latest manufacturing innovations being developed. With the introduction and adoption of more of additive manufacturing technologies, the mainstream manufacturing sector is on the cusp of a resurgence. Additive manufacturing combines innovative design and manufacturing capabilities that will create new products and the jobs that follow as a strategic boost to the U.S. economy. We invite the public to visit NAMII and learn more about the innovations in additive manufacturing."

NAMII's singular focus is to accelerate additive manufacturing technologies by fostering a highly collaborative infrastructure; facilitating the development and deployment of efficient and flexible additive manufacturing technologies; and educating students and training workers in these technologies to create an adaptive, leading workforce.

"Participating in national MFG Day and opening our doors to the public is an extension of the education and workforce outreach that NAMII does every day," said Darrell Wallace, Ph.D., NAMII Deputy Director of Workforce and Educational Outreach. "The open house is providing yet another opportunity for NAMII to engage and educate the public on the capabilities and potential of additive manufacturing technologies and introduce them to those technologies in our Innovation Factory."

For more information or to register, visit: www.namii.org/namii-open-house

Friday, 30 August 2013 09:17

NAMII Announces 2nd Call for Projects

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NAMII, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, and driven by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM), proudly announces its second call for additive manufacturing (AM) applied research and development projects from NAMII members. NAMII will provide $9 million in funding for multiple awards.

“Today’s announcement of NAMII’s second call for projects is the accumulation of months of focused work and in-depth analysis on two fronts that are intrinsically linked: The creation of a formal, member-driven project call process and the development of a National Additive Manufacturing Roadmap, our technology investment strategy,” said NAMII Director and NCDMM Vice President Ed Morris. “Both initiatives originated from NAMII’s efforts to capture the voice of our community, beginning in April with our initial Program Management Review (PMR) meeting continuing at our RAPID appearance in June, and progressing throughout a series of NAMII member-only workshops held in July.

“The input we gathered across the board was invaluable,” continued Mr. Morris. “As a result, NAMII now has a robust project call process in place that can be leveraged for all future calls. It will also drive the ongoing evolution of a very timely, accurate, and forward-looking Roadmap. Together, the process and Roadmap enabled us to identify a comprehensive set of priorities — needs, gaps, and opportunities — within our industry. NAMII is addressing those priorities with this second call for applied research and development projects. I look forward to receiving an influx of submissions from NAMII members.”

NAMII’s second call for projects comes just two weeks after commemorating its first anniversary — an industrious, high-energy year marked by notable achievements for the public-private partnership that is currently 80 members strong. With the release of this second project call, NAMII is well positioned for yet another productive and successful year.

“From the PMR meetings to RAPID and most recently, at a series of engaging and collaborative workshops facilitated by NAMII, we remain diligent in all our efforts to empower our members and community and to prioritize their needs,” added Rob Gorham, NAMII Deputy Director – Technology Development. “NAMII is incredibly proud and excited to release such a community-driven, second project call that will fund cross-cutting additive manufacturing and 3D printing projects with the potential to produce some big outcomes.”

NAMII’s Project Call Request for Proposal (RFP) is limited to five technical topic areas with subset focus areas. Proposals can address one or more technical topic areas, but must address all evaluation criteria.

I. Design for Additive Manufacturing

a) Complex and Reproducible Designs via Modeling and Simulation Tools: The ability to manufacture very complex design geometries continues to be demonstrated with current AM / 3DP processes. The challenge exists when attempting to validate the value of the design as the final solution. Modeling and simulation provides the platform for capturing the interactions of material, processes, and design. The focus of this technical topic is the development of modeling and simulation tools that enable the ability to “virtually” evaluate and optimize process and product alternatives for reduced cost, schedule risk reduction and performance improvements.

II. Additive Manufacturing Materials

a) Sustainable Materials for AM / 3DP: Two important R&D needs have been identified to support the increased utilization of sustainable materials for AM. Responsive proposals to this subtopic may address one or both of these challenges:

1. For designers to better understand the impact of material selection, the understanding of recycling limits through a Recyclability Index that accounts for the embodied energy and processability of materials has been identified as a R&D need. AM polymeric and metallic materials of greatest interest to industry should be targeted for this effort.

2. To increase the availability of design and production material options, design and development of materials that offer improved recyclability is also needed. Incorporating these characteristics into tools such as integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) will further increase the sustainability of AM. Successful projects that address this topic area are anticipated to reduce the life-cycle energy through increased recycling of materials and reduce cost through the ability to reuse/recycle materials and parts.

b) Gradient and Tailored Materials: Limited capabilities exist today for integrating different properties and functionality within a single part or build volume, with significant limitations on material properties that can be created with current materials options. An R&D need has been identified for the development of metallic and/or polymeric complex parts created with gradient and tailored materials properties within one part/build that may be accomplished by varying process parameters or the use of different feedstock materials. Successful projects that address this topic area are anticipated to offer an increased return on investment (e.g., elimination of post-processing coating applications or assembly/bonding of parts) and creation of tailored material properties through the support and development of new, advanced applications for advanced applications.

III. Process and Equipment

a) Next Generation Machine: Opportunities are available for the development of the next generation of AM equipment. An R&D need is the improvement of existing AM equipment to achieve a significant improvement in two (or more) aspects, such as speed, resolution or batch volume. This would provide an advantage for equipment and part manufacturers and lower the barriers of entry to multiple markets.

b) Multiple Materials Processing Equipment: Integrated electronics within AM parts may be a significant advancement for the industry, but has not yet been sufficiently developed for commercialization. This project technical topic would develop, demonstrate, and transition equipment for the production of polymeric parts with embedded electronic components (such as sensors and other components) for advanced product markets.

c) Energy Self-Monitoring Additive Manufacturing Equipment Systems: Many AM processes have wasted process energy that contributes to the overall energy cost of a manufacturing operation. Manufacturers have little knowledge of the energy impacts of changing from traditional manufacturing processes to AM processes. This topic will address the opportunities to develop methods for equipment to self-monitor energy consumption. In addition, methodologies for reducing energy usage of AM equipment will be important to further widespread adoption.

IV. Qualification and Certification

a) Non-Destructive Evaluation of Complex Geometries: Commercially available, and potentially emerging, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for complex geometries need to be defined for AM to assure end-user and customer confidence of the quality of finished, high-value AM components. The focus of this technical topic is the integration of existing NDE techniques or development of new in-situ sensing capabilities or post-process techniques to measure, monitor, and take action on complex AM/3DP build geometries and/or features.

V. Knowledgebase Development

a) Process/Properties Validation Data Set: A national repository of data on process/material property information is needed. NAMII is currently developing the framework for capturing data of relevance to the AM industry. To incentivize materials/process data creation and sharing, a knowledgebase is under development. The focus of this technical topic is the development of round robin collaborative testing of materials/processes that have high relevance to industry and high-market potential, and to contribute the resulting data to the NAMII knowledgebase. Materials of interest include polymers, metals, ceramics, and other materials relevant to industry needs and growing AM markets.

The NAMII Project RFP process is open to all organizations as long as they are partnered with a NAMII member and the NAMII member submits the proposal on behalf of that project partnership/collaboration as the lead proposer.

An e-mail notice of intent to submit from the lead proposer of the project team is requested no later than Friday, September 27, 2013, to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it and should include the proposed topics(s)/subtopic(s).

All proposals are due by Friday, October 31, 2013. Submissions must be presented by e-mail to the technical contact listed below with “NAMII PROJECT PROPOSAL” as the Subject line. E-mail submissions to:

Rob Gorham
NAMII Deputy Director – Technology Development
National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

All submissions will be acknowledged by a return e-mail confirmation from NCDMM.

The anticipated start date of the second set of projects is January 2014.

For more information, visit: www.namii.org/project-call-2

NAMII, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, driven by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM), is proud to announce the awardees of its initial call for additive manufacturing (AM) applied research and development projects from NAMII members. NAMII will provide $4.5 million in funding toward these projects with the matching cost share from the awarded project teams totaling $5 million.

“As a collective, NCDMM and NAMII found that the submitted proposals detailed highly innovative additive manufacturing project ideas, featuring applied research and development, efficient use of digital data, high sustainability, and aggressive education outreach and workforce training plans,” said NCDMM Vice President and NAMII Director Ed Morris. “The down-select process proved to be intense. NAMII’s fundamental objective is to spawn the creation of new, innovative products and the corresponding U.S. jobs to support them based on the unique capabilities of additive manufacturing. NCDMM and NAMII have selected seven projects that best integrate with the four NAMII thrust areas of technology development, technology transition, advanced manufacturing enterprise, and education/workforce outreach.”

Jennifer Chase Fielding, Ph.D., NAMII Program Manager and Deputy Program Manager, Defense-wide Manufacturing Science and Technology, Manufacturing Technology Division at Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL/RXMS concurs with Mr. Morris.

“The launch of these developmental research projects is an excellent beginning to the formation of NAMII’s technology portfolio,” added Dr. Fielding. “We are thrilled with the level of collaboration between government, industry, and academia and the resulting value that will be brought to the national additive manufacturing community.”

The NAMII Project Call, which was released on November 27, 2012, at the Defense Manufacturing Conference (DMC) in Orlando, Fla., was focused on three technical topic areas: Materials Understanding and Performance; Qualification and Certification; and Process Capability and Characterization/Process Control. Proposals submitted to NAMII were to address one or more technical topic areas, but had to address all evaluation criteria.

Additionally, since one of NAMII’s key tenets as established by NCDMM is to promote and provide educational outreach and workforce development training, plans for these components had to be integrated into project proposals as well. For example, additive manufacturing curricula will be developed based on project results for high school pre-engineering courses, as well as community college, undergraduate, and graduate university classes.

The seven selected projects span a variety of metals and polymeric additive manufacturing processes and materials with near-term technical achievements impacting multiple key markets within a few months. Moreover, they represent excellent teaming by NAMII members with more than 30 different participating organizations, including eight universities and 25 industry partners from both small and large businesses. Subject to the finalization of all contractual details and requirements, the approved NAMII projects are as follows:

“Maturation of Fused Depositing Modeling (FDM) Component Manufacturing”
– Rapid Prototype + Manufacturing LLC (RP+M)

Led by small business part producer, RP+M, in partnership with equipment manufacturers and large industry system integrators and the University of Dayton Research Institute, this project will provide the community with a deeper understanding of the properties and opportunities of the high-temperature polymer, ULTEM™ 9085. Some of the key outcomes from this project include a design guide; critical materials and processing data; and machine, material, part and process certification.

“Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Processes and Procedures for Repurposing and Rejuvenation of Tooling”
– Case Western Reserve University

Led by Case Western Reserve University, in partnership with several additive manufacturers, die casters, computer modelers, and the North American Die Casting Association, this project will develop, evaluate, and qualify methods for repairing and repurposing tools and dies. Die casting tools are very expensive — sometimes exceeding $1 million each — and require long lead times to manufacture. The ability to repair and repurpose tools and dies can save energy and costs, and reduce lead time by extending tool life through use of the additive manufacturing techniques developed by this team.

“Sparse-Build Rapid Tooling by Fused Depositing Modeling (FDM) for Composite Manufacturing and Hydroforming”
– Missouri University of Science and Technology

“Fused Depositing Modeling (FDM) for Complex Composites Tooling”
– Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems

Two projects focusing on fused depositing modeling (FDM) are to be co-led developed in close collaboration by Missouri University of Science and Technology and Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, in partnership with other small and large companies and the Robert C. Byrd Institute’s Composite Center of Excellence. These projects address a key near-term opportunity for additive manufacturing:  the ability to rapidly and cost-effectively produce tooling for composite manufacturing. Polymer composite tools often involve expensive, complex machined, metallic structures that can take months to manufacture. Recent developments with high-temperature polymeric tooling, such as the ULTEM™ 9085 material, show great promise for low-cost, energy-saving tooling options for the polymer composites industry. In addition, these projects will explore the use of sparse-build tools, minimizing material use for the needs of the composite process. Composites are high-strength materials that are used in a wide range of industries and can be used for lightweighting, a key strategy for reducing energy use.

“Maturation of High-Temperature Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Technologies and Infrastructure”
– Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems

Led by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, in partnership with several industry team members, this project will develop a selective laser sintering (SLS) process for a lower-cost, high-temperature thermoplastic for making air and space vehicle components and other commercial applications. In addition, recyclability and reuse of materials will also be explored to maximize cost savings and promote sustainability.

“Thermal Imaging for Process Monitoring and Control of Additive Manufacturing”
– Penn State University Center for Innovative Materials Processing through Direct Digital Deposition (CIMP 3D)

Led by Penn State University, in partnership with several industry and university team members, this project will expand the use of thermal imaging for process monitoring and control of electron beam direct manufacturing (EBDM) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS) additive manufacturing processes. Improvements to the EBDM and LENS systems will enable 3D visualization of the measured global temperature field and real-time control of electron beam or laser power levels based on thermal image characteristics. These outcomes will enable the community to have greater confidence on part properties and quality using these technologies.

“Rapid Qualification Methods for Powder Bed Direct Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes”
– Case Western Reserve University

Led by Case Western Reserve University, in partnership with leading aerospace industry companies and other industry and university team members, this project will improve the industry’s ability to understand and control microstructure and mechanical properties across EOS Laser Sintering and Arcam Electron Beam Melting (EBM®) powder bed processes. Process-based cost modeling with variable production volumes will also be delivered, providing the community with valuable cost estimates for new product lines. The outcomes from this project will deliver much needed information to qualify these production processes for use across many industries.

“Today’s announcement of NAMII’s first project call awardees is the continuation of the industrious and high-energy pace that NCDMM has established for NAMII since its founding a mere seven months ago as the pilot institute for the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) infrastructure,” said Ralph Resnick, NCDMM President and Executive Director and NAMII Founding Director. “This initial award of projects marks the beginning of additional awards to come that will accelerate the integration of additive manufacturing into mainstream manufacturing.”

In addition to today’s project award announcement, NAMII is also announcing that it will conduct Program Management Review and Project Kickoff meetings for NAMII members only on April 2-3 in Youngstown, Ohio. Upon conclusion of the Project Kickoff meeting, more details on the project awards will be made available by the respective awardees.

NAMII will also officially announce its next project call at the RAPID 2013 Conference and Exposition on June 10-13 in Pittsburgh, Pa. This next project call will reflect further refined and key strategic topic areas necessary for NAMII to meet the needs of industry partners and enable the widespread adoption of additive manufacturing technologies and innovations.

For more information, visit: www.namii.org

On November 27, 2012, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute announced its initial request for proposal (RFP) from NAMII members for applied research projects.

The NAMII Project RFP process is open to all organizations as long as they are partnered with a NAMII member and the NAMII member submits the proposal on behalf of that project partnership/collaboration.

The NAMII Project Call RFP is limited to three technical topic areas. Proposals from NAMII members can address one or more technical topic areas, but must address all evaluation criteria.

  • Materials Understanding and Performance: Understanding material properties and characteristics to enable expected performance are key to the wide-scale industry adoption of additive manufacturing. Specific focus areas include development of materials database design for capturing broad sets of test results; design-allowable properties for materials; data access and sharing platform; methods to manage materials variability; and identification of material requirements and gap analysis. All efforts should focus on expediting the transition and qualification of materials and material systems for additive manufacturing to establish a seamless path from materials requirements to process capability.

  • Qualification and Certification: Testing, qualification, and certification methods and systems that enable the rapid deployment of additive manufacturing products are critical to additive manufacturing adoption. Specific focus areas include methods for rapid qualification and certification; innovative technology approach to qualification and certification; leveraging of modeling and simulation; quantification of process variability; identification of variability reduction to increase reliability, process optimization, and rate increases; and certification of suppliers.  All efforts should focus on elimination of barriers and reduction of time to market related to qualification and certification of products.

  • Process Capability and Characterization/Process Control: A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between process parameters and the resulting product will advance additive manufacturing processes to deliver this breakthrough technology. Specific focus areas include process repeatability and throughput improvement; development of algorithms for modeling expected outcomes; improved part quality; and in-situ adaptive control systems.  All efforts should focus on process improvements to encourage adoption of additive manufacturing technology.

For more information, visit: www.namii.org/projects

Tuesday, 16 October 2012 09:30

NAMII Officially Opens for Business

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NAMII, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, held its open house and official ribbon-cutting ceremony last Thursday at the Youngstown Business Incubator (YBI) Annex, to an outpouring of industry and community support from a crowd of more than 200 in attendance.

“NAMII’s opening ceremony was a resounding success. The implications of NAMII’s award and opening in this time and place are enormously significant and far reaching not only for the additive manufacturing sector and the manufacturing industry as a whole, but also for the community of Youngstown, the Tech Belt region of the Eastern Ohio/Western Pennsylvania/West Virginia, and our nation,” said Ralph Resnick, NCDMM President and Executive Director and Acting Director for NAMII. “It is a game changer. With NAMII leading and fostering an unprecedented level of industry collaboration, the additive manufacturing sector is poised to revolutionize theU.S.manufacturing industry.

“Additive manufacturing technology has the capability to dramatically transform the way we make things,” Resnick continued. “Unlike traditional manufacturing methods that subtract material to make parts, additive manufacturing essentially grows parts. We are on the cusp growing the U.S. manufacturing industry into a dominant economic force and it started right here in Youngstown with the official opening of NAMII.”

In her opening remarks at the ceremony, Barb Ewing, YBI Chief Operating Officer, echoed this sentiment, saying “At its most fundamental level, the goal of this program is to restore American manufacturing to its predominant position in the world’s economy and to rebuild our industrial base and create quality jobs for our future.”

Ms. Ewing emceed the open house and ribbon-cutting event and in addition to Mr. Resnick, speakers at the NAMII opening included U.S. Representative Tim Ryan (OH-17); U.S. Representative Jason Altmire (PA-4); and T. Sharon Woodberry, City of Youngstown Economic Development Director. Also in attendance to represent NAMII member, Youngstown State University (YSU), and participate in the ribbon cutting was Dr. Cynthia Anderson, President of YSU.

Congressmen Ryan and Altmire were the co-founders of the Cleveland to Pittsburgh Tech Belt Initiative. Congressman Ryan also secured funding from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development for NAMII. Ms. Woodberry worked tirelessly with YBI and NAMII on behalf of the City of Youngstown and Youngstown City Council to secure community support to bring NAMII to the city and funding for building renovations. Additional funding for the renovations was provided through a collaboration between YSU and Ohio Department of Administrative Services, as well as the Youngstown Foundation.

“We look forward to the all-hands meeting and are very excited to get down to business and build on the positive momentum of the open house event,” said Mr. Resnick.

NAMII is a public-private partnership with member organizations from industry, academia, government, and workforce development resources all collaborating with a singular, shared vision to transition additive manufacturing technology to the mainstream U.S. manufacturing sector. Based in Youngstown, Ohio, NAMII is the pilot institute for the newly established National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI). NAMII is managed by the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM).

For more information, visit: www.namii.org

Photo Credit: National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM)

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